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lunes, 30 de junio de 2008

VIDEOS 1

"U2 - Vertigo ( Original video 2004) "
"Bono U2 All Star Tribute - What's Going on"
"Bono with The Corrs - Summer Wine"
"Bono U2 & Wyclef Jean - New Day"
"U2 - One ( Bono in the bar version )"
"U2 - Stuck in a moment"
"Bono U2 & Luciano Pavarotti - Miss Sarajevo"
"U2 - City of blinding lights"
"U2 - With or Without you ( Live in Boston 2001 )"
"U2 - Sunday Bloody Sunday ( Live at red rock )"

U2(ユーツー)はアイルランド出身のロックバンドである。メンバーはボノ(ボーカル・ギター)、ジ・エッジ(ギター・キーボード・ボーカル)、アダム・クレイトン(ベース)、ラリー・マレン・ジュニア(ドラムス)からなる。1980年のデビュー以降、政治的な信条と渇愛を力強く歌い上げる作風で世界的に数多くのファンを持つグループである。アルバムの総売り上げは1億7千万枚を超える。グラミー賞獲得数22はロックバンドとしては最多である。

目次 [非表示]
1 プロフィール
1.1 結成とデビュー
1.2 初期3部作
1.3 中期3部作
1.4 シンセポップ3部作
1.5 原点回帰
2 メンバー
3 特徴
3.1 ライブやツアーについて
3.2 社会派ロックバンド
4 関連する人物・団体
5 エピソード
6 日本での活動
6.1 日本公演
7 ディスコグラフィ
7.1 アルバム
7.2 ライブアルバム
7.3 ベストアルバム
7.4 その他
8 主に使用された曲
9 参考文献
10 外部リンク



プロフィール [編集]

結成とデビュー [編集]
1976年、ダブリンのマウント・テンプル高校の掲示板にラリー・マレン・ジュニアがバンドメンバー募集の貼り紙を出した。これを知ったポール・ヒューソン(ボノ)、アダム・クレイトン、エヴァンス兄弟(兄ディック、弟デイヴ(ジ・エッジ))が集まり、5人でアマチュア活動を始める。バンド名は「フィードバック(Feedback)」や「ハイプ(Hype)」を経て、ディック脱退後の1978年に「U2」と決まった。地元のタレントコンテストで優勝し、CBSアイルランドと契約。1979年に限定シングル『U2:3』でデビューする。アイルランド国内で人気を得て、1980年にアイランド・レコードと契約を結びメジャーデビューを果たす。


初期3部作 [編集]
スティーブ・リリーホワイトのプロデュースで、1980年にファーストアルバム『ボーイ』を発表。1981年に『アイリッシュ・オクトーバー』、1983年に『WAR(闘)』をリリースする。全英ヒットチャート1位を獲得した『WAR(闘)』は初期を代表するアルバムとなり、シングル「ニュー・イヤーズ・デイ」もヒットした。精力的なライブツアーにより、人気はイギリス、ヨーロッパ大陸、アメリカへと拡大。『ローリング・ストーン』誌はU2を1983年度の最優秀バンドに選出した。

荒削りな演奏とボノの熱唱に乗せて、社会問題や宗教観をストレートに表現する姿勢は、当時のポストパンク(ニュー・ウェイヴ)世代の中では異彩を放っていた。この期間のレコードジャケットには上半身裸の少年(音楽仲間の弟ピーター・ローウェン)の写真が使われている。


中期3部作 [編集]
新たにプロデューサにブライアン・イーノとダニエル・ラノワを迎え、1984年に『焔』を発表。1987年の次作『ヨシュア・トゥリー』が全英・全米ヒットチャートを制覇し、グラミー賞最優秀アルバム賞に選ばれるなど、世界的なスーパーバンドとして認められることになる。1988年にはアメリカツアーのドキュメンタリー映画『魂の叫び』を公開し、同名のアルバムもリリースした。

アンビエント音楽の主要人物であるイーノとラノワと交わることで、音楽性は内省的な方向へ深化した。また、アメリカのルーツ・ミュージックに傾倒し、ロックの源流であるブルース、ゴスペル、ソウル・ミュージックなどの要素を積極的に取り入れた。『魂の叫び』にはボブ・ディラン、B.B.キング、ヴァン・ダイク・パークスらが参加し、B.B.キングはツアーでも共演している。


シンセポップ3部作 [編集]
東西ドイツ統一の自由と混沌に満ちたベルリンで制作したアルバム『アクトン・ベイビー』(1991年)から、バンドのスタイルは前衛的な方向へ一変する。1993年の『ZOOROPA』、1997年の『ポップ』とテクノ系デジタルロック路線を突き進み、大掛かりなセットを組んだスタジアムツアーも話題をさらった。

従来のイメージを払拭するかのように、サウンドやビジュアルは官能・退廃・ユーモアに彩られ、ボノのボーカルもファルセットを交えた中性的な歌唱法へ様変わりした。だが、大胆な実験性が認められ、特に『アクトン・ベイビー』は大きなセールスを記録している。


原点回帰 [編集]
2000年にはイーノ、ラノワを再び迎え、新作『オール・ザット・ユー・キャント・リーヴ・ビハインド』を発表。2004年の『原子爆弾解体新書〜ハウ・トゥ・ディスマントル・アン・アトミック・ボム』ではリリーホワイトもプロデュースに復帰した。デビューから20周年を越えた新境地として、初期を思わせる素朴さと、1990年代のスタイルを織り交ぜ、現代的でありつつも原点に回帰したロックサウンドを完成させた。両アルバムとも高い評価を得て、グラミー賞において計15の部門賞を獲得した。

また、インターネット経由の音楽配信に積極的な姿勢を持ち、iPodのCM曲を提供した他、全446曲入りの究極のアルバム『ザ・コンプリートU2』をiTunes Music Store限定でリリースした。

2008年には「Vertigo Tour」を収録した3D映画『U2 3D』を世界公開(日本では2009年3月公開)。2009年には新アルバム『ノー・ライン・オン・ザ・ホライゾン』を発表し、「U2 360° Tour」ツアーが行われている。


メンバー [編集]
ボノ (Paul David Hewson、1960年5月10日 - ) - ボーカル、ギター
ジ・エッジ (Dave Howell Evans、1961年8月8日 - ) - ギター、コーラス、ピアノ
アダム・クレイトン (Adam Charles Clayton、1960年3月13日 - ) - ベース
ラリー・マレン・ジュニア (Lawrence Joseph Mullen, Jr.、1961年10月31日 - ) - ドラムス

特徴 [編集]
これまでに発表した作品は、2007年現在累計約1億7千万枚のセールスをあげている。音楽業界最高の名誉であるグラミー賞で獲得した賞は2007年に22を数え、バンドとしては最多を記録している。2005年にはロックの殿堂入りを果たし、「Vertigo Tour」が同年のコンサート収益1位を記録するなど、依然トップクラスの人気を誇っている。

結成した高校時代から既に25年以上経っているが、デビュー前にジ・エッジの兄が抜けた以外は不動の4ピースバンドとして活動を続けている。ギャラは貢献に関係なく四等分され、プライベートでもメンバーの家族含めて常に連れ添っている姿は、仕事以外付き合いがないバンドが多い中で珍しい。そのためか、よく『奇跡のバンド』と評される。メンバーの中ではボーカリストであり、慈善活動家としても精力的なボノの存在が目立つことが多いが、ジ・エッジの技巧的なギタープレイや、ドラム・ベースの重厚なリズムセクションも実力を知られている。

長い音楽活動の中であらゆるジャンルの音楽を取り込む試みを実行しており、バンドのイメージも時代ごとに様変わりしている。とくに1980年代と1990年代の全く異なる方向性については、ファンや音楽評論家の間に賛否両論を招いた。しかし、愛の尊さを伝える姿勢や、社会問題に関与する行動など、ロックバンドとしての「生真面目さ」を一貫して持ち続けている。


ライブやツアーについて [編集]

POPMART TOURの巨大ステージセットライブバンドとしても評価が高く、毎回異なるコンセプトとパフォーマンスは、ショービジネス界に大きな影響を与えている。特に1992年から始まった「ZOO TV TOUR」では、ステージ上に巨大なテレビを多数設置、パフォーマンスに合わせて異なる映像やメッセージを流す、ドイツ製車トラバントを照明として使用、会場の中まで花道を置くステージ等、当時としては画期的なコンセプトであった。『ローリング・ストーン』誌は、「ビートルズのサージェント・ペパーズ・ロンリー・ハーツ・クラブ・バンドに匹敵する革新性」と評した。

1997年からの「POPMART TOUR」では、高さ17m×幅51mの巨大スクリーンとミラーボール式のレモンのオブジェ等約180億円の費用をかけ、スタジアム公演のみのツアーとなった。

2001年からの「ELEVATION TOUR」、2005年からの「VERTIGO TOUR」は一見シンプルなステージに戻ったものの、細部に最先端の装置・照明・映像を駆使し、米SPIN誌等批評家からも世界で最も良いライブを行うバンドとして評されている。


社会派ロックバンド [編集]
音楽による社会問題提起に熱心であり、宗教紛争、反核、人権、薬物依存症などについてメッセージ性の強い曲を発表している。また、アフリカの発展途上国やエイズ問題などへのチャリティー活動にも積極的に参加している。

母国アイルランドにおけるカトリックとプロテスタントの宗教対立に対し、不偏の非暴力主義をアピールした。『WAR(闘)』のオープニング曲「ブラディ・サンデー」では、北アイルランド問題の「血の日曜日事件」を取り上げ、IRAの活動を批判する立場を示した。このため、IRA支持者から脅迫されたこともあった。
1984年、エチオピア飢餓救済を目指すバンド・エイドのチャリティーシングル「Do They Know It's Christmas」にボノとアダムが参加。1985年にはライヴエイドに出演する。その後、ボノはアフリカ諸国の経済的自立を支援する様々な国際的プロジェクトに関与している。2005年にはボブ・ゲルドフらとLIVE 8開催に貢献し、ステージではポール・マッカートニーと共演した。
「ZOO TV TOUR」でボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ紛争下のサラエヴォを衛星中継し、包囲された市民の惨状を観客に伝えた。ビル・カーター制作のドキュメンタリー番組『Miss Sarajevo』を元に、ルチアーノ・パヴァロッティとの共演で同名のシングルを発表(「パッセンジャーズ」名義)。停戦合意後の1997年には、NATO平和維持軍監視下のサラエヴォで「POPMART TOUR」を開催し、入場料収入全額をボスニアの戦争孤児支援基金「ウォー・チャイルド」へ寄付した。
1992年にグリーンピースのセラフィールド抗議活動に参加し、放射線防護服を着てビートルズの『4人はアイドル』(原題:Help!)のジャケットを真似るパフォーマンスを行った。
アパルトヘイトや軍事政権などの人権問題を取り上げ、アムネスティ・インターナショナルの活動に協力している。「VERTIGO TOUR」ではスクリーンに世界人権宣言を映した。マーティン・ルーサー・キング・ジュニア、アウンサンスーチーら人権運動家へのトリビュートソングも発表している。
2002年の第36回スーパーボウルのハーフタイムショーで、2001年9月11日に起きたアメリカ同時多発テロ事件の犠牲者全員の氏名をスクリーンに映し、追悼の意を表した。
バラク・オバマは民主党予備選や大統領指名受諾演説でU2の曲を使用。2009年1月、U2はオバマの大統領就任式祝賀コンサートに出演し、キング牧師が「I Have a Dream」の演説を行ったリンカーン記念館でキング牧師へのトリビュートソング「プライド」と「シティ・オブ・ブラインディング・ライツ」を演奏した。

関連する人物・団体 [編集]
シン・リジィのリーダーで、同郷の先人であったフィル・ライノットから、駆け出し時代に多くのアドバイスを受けており、メンバーにとっては尊敬の対象となっている[要出典]。
バンドの誕生に影響を与えたアーティストはザ・クラッシュ、ラモーンズなど。ライブではビートルズやエルヴィス・プレスリーの曲をカヴァーしている。元『ザ・バンド』のロビー・ロバートソンのソロアルバムにメンバー全員で参加したほか、「ZOO TV TOUR」では衛星中継を介し、ルー・リードと共演を行った。
U2に影響を受けた後進のバンドはコールドプレイ、キラーズなど。メアリー・J・ブライジ、グリーン・デイはU2と共演したシングルを発売しヒットを記録している。メアリー・J・ブライジとは「one」のデュエットを、グリーン・デイとはチャリティー目的でザ・スキッズのカバー「The Saints Are Coming」を発表している。「The Saints Are Coming」のビデオは、イラクから帰還した米軍ヘリがニューオリンズに救援物資を投下するといった内容のもので、YouTubeで公開され話題となった。
ブライアン・イーノとはPassengers(パッセンジャーズ)の共同名義で、1995年に架空のサウンドトラックアルバム『Original Soundtrack 1』を発表した。シングルカット曲「ミス・サラエボ」ではオペラ歌手ルチアーノ・パヴァロッティと共演。また、「Holi」名義で小林明子が参加している。
映画監督ヴィム・ヴェンダースはU2のPVを撮影し、U2が映画主題歌を提供するなど関係が深い。ボノの構想をヴェンダースが監督し、映画『ミリオンダラー・ホテル』が製作された。
『魂の叫び』を監督したフィル・ジョアノーの映画『ウィズアウト・ユー』(原題:Entropy)では、スティーヴン・ドーフがU2のPV監督という主人公を演じる。劇中では「POPMART TOUR」の模様が映る他、ボノとラリーが本人役でカメオ出演している。
写真家・映像作家のアントン・コービン(Anton Corbijn)は、『WAR(闘)』以降のジャケット写真を撮影している。写真集やPVも手がけるなど、ビジュアル面での貢献が大きい。

エピソード [編集]
バンド名の由来については、アメリカの偵察機U-2、ドイツの潜水艦II型Uボート、You too(ファンへのシンパシーを表す)などの諸説があった。しかし、メンバー自身が語るところでは「バンド名を決める際に挙げた候補の内、一番ましなものを選んだだけで、特に意味はない」とのこと。むしろ「U2」という無意味な言葉の解釈の自由こそが魅力と語っている(『U2 BY U2』 シンコーミュージック・エンタテイメント刊より)。ちなみに、『アクトン・ベイビー』収録曲の「ズー・ステーション」はベルリンの実在する駅名(ドイツ語でZoologischer Garten)だが、そこへ行く電車路線はU2という。
「ZOO TV TOUR」のMCでは、ボノが開催地のどこかへ電話をかけるコーナーがあった。フランスのミッテラン大統領、ドイツのコール首相、アメリカのホワイトハウス(ブッシュ大統領には繋いでもらえず)、大統領候補のビル・クリントン(本人との会話に成功)などのほか、ピザ屋にピザ1万枚の宅配を注文したこともあった。日本公演での相手は初日が横綱曙、2日目は117番(NTTの時報ダイヤル)相手に「マドンナにつないでくれ」と言っていた(マドンナは当時来日中だった)。
バンド初期の頃は、ポップ・ミュージックを毛嫌いしており「聞くに値しない」と考えていた。そのためか、ペット・ショップ・ボーイズがU2の代表曲である『Where the streets have no name』をハウス調にしてカバーしたときは激怒し、両者の関係が悪化してしまった[要出典]。しかし1990年代に入ると、ハウスやシンセミュージック、ついにはポップ・ミュージックまでも積極的に取り込んでいく。自身のアルバムに『POP』と名付け、ペット・ショップ・ボーイズとも和解。ライブではABBAのメンバーと共演し、『Dancing Queen』をカバーするまでになった。
2004年発売のアルバム『ハウ・トゥ・ディスマントル・アン・アトミック・ボム』からのシングル『Vertigo』がiPodのCMソングに起用され(U2が自らの楽曲をCMソングに起用することを了承したのはこれが初めて)、また、"iPod U2 Special Edition"も発売された。加えて、2005年に発売された動画再生に対応したiPodのCMでは、動画機能のアピールのために「Original of the Species」のライブ映像が使用されている。
アルバム制作中に2度盗難事件に遭っている。1981年のアメリカツアー中『アイリッシュ・オクトーバー』の歌詞原稿を入れたバッグが盗まれたが、2004年に発見者からの連絡で23年ぶりにメンバーの手元に戻った。2004年にはフランスで『ハウ・トゥ・ディスマントル・アン・アトミック・ボム』のサンプルCDが盗まれ、ネット流出が心配される騒ぎとなった。
映画「Shooter」(邦題「ザ・シューター/極大射程」)の中で、主人公が大佐と人質交換のときの仲介人にボノを冗談半分で(顔は真剣そのもの)指名していた。映画「ブローン・アウェイ」ではトミー・リー・ジョーンズ演じるIRAテロリストがU2の曲をかけながら爆弾を作るシーンがある。
「Walk On」は、ミャンマーの民主主義指導者アウンサンスーチーに贈られたもの。

日本での活動 [編集]
1983年のWAR TOURでの来日の際、フジテレビ系「夜のヒットスタジオ」に出演し、『New Year's Day』を演奏。途中、ギターの音が出なくなるトラブルに遭った。
1998年のPOP MART TOURでの来日の際、3月6日にボノがテレビ朝日系『ニュースステーション』に生出演し、約15分にわたってインタビューに答えた。
2003年10月〜2004年3月の間、テレビ朝日系『ニュースステーション』10代目メインテーマ曲を「Where the Streets Have No Name(約束の地)」で担当した。
2006年春に延期されたワールド・ツアーの振替公演が同年11月29、30日と12月4日にさいたまスーパーアリーナで行われた。来日時には、テレビ朝日系の音楽番組『ミュージックステーション』に12月1日に出演、TBS系のNEWS23ではインタビューを受けた。ボノが日本のテレビ番組に出演するのは8年ぶり、U2としては23年ぶりのことである。
2006年11月、ボノは安倍晋三元首相を表敬訪問し、日本の発展途上国 (特にアフリカ)への援助を要請。また、2000年に日本が提案した基金によりエイズ患者の手に治療薬が渡っていることを賞讃した。そして安倍首相にサングラスをプレゼントし、首相もそれをかけるパフォーマンスを見せた。

日本公演 [編集]
WAR TOUR(1983年) 大阪・フェスティバルホール(11月22日)、愛知・瀬戸市文化センター(11月23日)、東京・渋谷公会堂(11月26日)、東京・渋谷公会堂(11月27日)、東京・新宿厚生年金会館(11月29日)、東京・中野サンプラザ(11月30日)
THE LOVETOWN TOUR(1989年) 横浜アリーナ(11月23日)、東京ドーム(11月25日、26日)、大阪城ホール(11月28日、29日、12月1日)
ZOO TV TOUR(1993年) 東京ドーム(12月9日、10日)
POP MART TOUR(1998年) 東京ドーム(3月5日)、大阪ドーム(3月11日)
VERTIGO TOUR(2006年) さいたまスーパーアリーナ(11月29日、30日、12月4日)
※2006年4月4日日産スタジアム公演の振替公演。延期は、「メンバーの家族の病気により、メンバーが家族に付き添いたい。」という理由による。日本以外でも、いくつかの国の公演が延期された。尚、さいたま公演ではスタジアム形式ではなく、アリーナ形式(ただしステージセットはスタジアム仕様)で行なわれた為、従来の会場よりも、より身近に公演を楽しむことが出来た。
U2 are a rock band formed in Dublin, Ireland. The band consists of Bono (vocals and guitar), The Edge (guitar, keyboards, and vocals), Adam Clayton (bass guitar), and Larry Mullen, Jr. (drums and percussion).
The band formed in 1976 when the members were teenagers with limited musical proficiency. By the mid-1980s, the band had become a top international act. Their success as a live act was greater than their success as a record selling act until their 1987 album The Joshua Tree, which according to Rolling Stone, elevated the band's stature "from heroes to superstars". U2 responded to the dance and alternative rock revolutions and their own sense of musical stagnation by reinventing themselves with their 1991 album Achtung Baby and the accompanying Zoo TV Tour. Since 2000, U2 have pursued a more conventional rock sound that retains the influence of their previous musical explorations.
U2 have sold more than 145 million albums worldwide[3][and have won 22 Grammy Awards,[5] more than any other band.[6] In 2005, the band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone magazine listed U2 at #22 in its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time.[7] Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, the ONE Campaign and Bono's DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade in Africa) campaign.
Contents[hide]
1 History
1.1 Formation and early years (1976–1979)
1.2 Boy, October, and War (1980–1983)
1.3 The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
1.4 The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1989)
1.5 Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
1.6 Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1994–1999)
1.7 "Reapplying for the job of the best band in the world" (2000–2006)
1.8 No Line on the Horizon and U2 360° Tour (2007–present)
2 Musical style
2.1 Lyrics and themes
2.2 Influences
3 Campaigning and activism
4 Other projects
5 Discography
6 Awards
7 References
7.1 General
7.2 Notes
8 External links
//

[edit] History

[edit] Formation and early years (1976–1979)

U2 in their early years: (left to right) Clayton, Mullen, Bono, Edge
The band formed in Dublin on 25 September 1976.[8] Larry Mullen, Jr., then 14, posted a notice on his secondary school notice board (Mount Temple Comprehensive School) seeking musicians for a new band. Seven teenage boys attended the initial practice in Mullen's kitchen. It was, as Mullen put it, "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes, then Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." The group featured Mullen on drums, Paul Hewson (Bono) on lead vocals, Dave Evans (The Edge) and his brother Dik Evans on guitar, Adam Clayton, a friend of the Evans brothers on bass guitar, and initially Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin, two other friends of Mullen.[9] Soon after, the group settled on the name "Feedback", because it was one of the few technical terms they knew.[10] Martin did not return after the first practice, and McCormick left the group within a few weeks. Most of the group's material initially consisted of cover versions, which the band said was not their forte.[citation needed] The original material the band did write demonstrated a sound influenced by their post-punk peers.[11]
We couldn't believe it. I was completely shocked. We weren't of an age to go out partying as such but I don't think anyone slept that night.... Really, it was just a great affirmation to win that competition, even though I've no idea how good we were or what the competition was really like. But to win at that point was incredibly important for morale and everyone's belief in the whole project.
The Edge on winning the CBS competition[12]
In March 1977, the band changed their name to "The Hype".[13] Dik Evans, who was older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble and he was "phased out" in March 1978. During a farewell concert in the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth, which featured The Hype playing covers, Dik ceremoniously walked offstage. The remaining four band members completed the concert playing original material as "U2".[14] Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, and because it was the name that they disliked the least.[15]
On Saint Patrick's Day in 1978, U2 won a talent show in Limerick, Ireland. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland. This win was an important milestone and affirmation for the fledgling band.[14] The band recorded their first demo tape at Keystone Studios, in Harcourt Street, Dublin, in April 1978.[16] Hot Press was influential in shaping the band's future; in May, Paul McGuinness, who had earlier been introduced to the band by the magazine's journalist Bill Graham, agreed to be U2's manager.[17] U2's first release, an Ireland-only EP entitled Three, was released in September 1979 and was the band's first Irish chart success.[18] In December 1979, U2 performed in London for their first shows outside Ireland, although they failed to get much attention from audiences or critics.[19] In February 1980, their second single "Another Day" was released on the CBS label, but again only for the Irish market.[20]

[edit] Boy, October, and War (1980–1983)
Island Records signed U2 in March 1980, and "11 O'Clock Tick Tock" became the band's first internationally released single that May.[21] The band's debut album, the Steve Lillywhite produced Boy, followed in October, and received generally positive reviews.[22] Although Bono's lyrics were unfocused and seemingly improvised, a common theme was the dreams and frustrations of adolescence.[23] The album included the band's first United Kingdom hit single, "I Will Follow". Boy's release was followed by U2's first tour of continental Europe and the United States.[24] Despite being unpolished, these early live performances demonstrated U2's potential, as critics noted that Bono was a "charismatic" and "passionate" showman.[25]
The band's second album, October, was released in 1981 and contained overtly spiritual themes. During the album's recording sessions, Bono and The Edge left the band due to spiritual conflicts, and U2 ceased to exist for a brief period of time.[26] Bono, The Edge, and Mullen had joined a Christian group in Dublin called the 'Shalom Fellowship', which led them to question the relationship between the Christian faith and the rock and roll lifestyle.[27] Recording was further complicated when a briefcase containing lyrics for several working songs was stolen from backstage during the band's performance at a nightclub in Portland, Oregon; it was recovered and returned to the band in 2004, nearly a quarter century later.[28] The album received mixed reviews and limited radio play. It did not sell well outside the UK, which put pressure on their contract with Island and focused the band on improvement.[29]

Bono performs in Norway during the War Tour in 1983.
Resolving the doubts of the October period, U2 released War in 1983.[30] A record where the band "turned pacifism itself into a crusade",[31] War's sincerity and "rugged" guitar was intentionally at odds with the "cooler" synth-pop of the time.[32] The album included "Sunday Bloody Sunday", where Bono had lyrically tried to contrast the events of Bloody Sunday with Easter Sunday.[33] Rolling Stone magazine wrote that the song showed the band was capable of deep and meaningful songwriting. War was U2's first album to feature the photography of Anton Corbijn, who remains U2's principal photographer and has had a major influence on their vision and public image.[34] U2's first commercial success, War debuted at number one in the UK, and its first single, "New Year's Day", was the band's first hit outside Ireland or the UK.[35]
On the subsequent War Tour, the band performed to sold-out concerts in mainland Europe and the U.S. The image of Bono waving a white flag during performances of "Sunday Bloody Sunday" became a familiar sight.[36] U2 recorded the Under a Blood Red Sky live album on this tour, as well as the Live at Red Rocks concert film, both of which received extensive play on the radio and MTV, expanding the band's audience and cementing the band's prowess as a live band.[37] Their generally unfavourable record deal with Island Records was coming to an end, and in 1984 U2 signed a highly lucrative extension. They negotiated the return of their copyrights (so that they owned the rights to their own songs), an increase in their royalty rate, and a general improvement in terms, at the expense of a larger initial payment.[38]

[edit] The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
We knew the world was ready to receive the heirs to The Who. All we had to do was to keep doing what we were doing and we would become the biggest band since Led Zeppelin, without a doubt. But something just didn't feel right. We felt we had more dimension than just the next big anything, we had something unique to offer. The innovation was what would suffer if we went down the standard rock route. We were looking for another feeling.
Bono on The Unforgettable Fire's new direction.[39]
The Unforgettable Fire was released in 1984. Ambient and abstract, it was at the time the band’s most marked change in direction.[40] The band feared that following the overt rock of the War album and tour, they were in danger of becoming another "shrill", "sloganeering arena-rock band".[41] Thus, experimentation was sought[42] as Adam Clayton recalls, "We were looking for something that was a bit more serious, more arty."[39] The Edge admired the ambient and "weird works" of Brian Eno, who, along with his engineer Daniel Lanois, eventually agreed to produce the record.[43]

"The Unforgettable Fire" (1984)
Sample of "The Unforgettable Fire" from the album The Unforgettable Fire (1984). Typical of the album, the song has a rich, symphonic sound built from ambient guitar and driving rhythm; a lyrical "sketch".[44]
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The Unforgettable Fire has a rich and orchestrated sound. Under Lanois' direction, Larry's drumming became looser, funkier, and more subtle and Adam's bass became more subliminal; the rhythm section no longer intruded, but flowed in support of the songs.[45] Complementing the sonic atmospherics, the album's lyrics are open to many interpretations, providing what the band called a "very visual feel".[40] Bono's recent immersion in fiction, philosophy, and poetry made him realise that his songwriting responsibility — about which he had always been reluctant — was a poetic one. Due to a tight recording schedule, however, Bono felt songs like "Bad" and "Pride (In the Name of Love)" were incomplete "sketches".[46] "Pride (In the Name of Love)", about Martin Luther King, was the album's first single and became the band's biggest hit at that point, including being their first to enter the U.S. top 40.[47]
Much of The Unforgettable Fire Tour moved into indoor arenas as U2 began to win their long battle to build their audience.[48] The complex textures of the new studio-recorded tracks, such as "The Unforgettable Fire" and "Bad", were problematic to translate to live performance.[40] One solution was programmed sequencers, which the band had previously been reluctant to use, but are now used in the majority of the band's performances.[40] Songs on the album had been criticised as being "unfinished", "fuzzy", and "unfocused", but were better received by critics when played on stage.[49]

U2's performance at Live Aid was a turning point in their career.
U2 participated in the Live Aid concert for Ethiopian famine relief at Wembley Stadium in July 1985.[50] U2's performance was a turning point in the band's career.[51] During the song "Bad", Bono leapt down off the stage to embrace and dance with a fan, showing a television audience of millions the personal connection that Bono could make with audiences.[52] In 1985, Rolling Stone magazine called U2 the "Band of the 80s", saying that "for a growing number of rock-and-roll fans, U2 have become the band that matters most, maybe even the only band that matters".[53]

[edit] The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1989)
Motivated by friendships with Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, and Keith Richards, the band looked back to the roots of rock music, and Bono focused on his skills as a song and lyric writer.[54] Realising "that U2 had no tradition", the band explored American blues, country, and gospel music.[55] For their fifth album, the band wanted to build on The Unforgettable Fire's atmospherics, but instead of its out-of-focus tracks, they sought a harder-hitting sound within the strict discipline of conventional song structures.[56] U2 interrupted their 1986 album sessions to serve as a headline act on Amnesty International's A Conspiracy of Hope tour, but rather than be a distraction, the tour added extra intensity and power to their new music.[57] In his 1986 travels to San Salvador and Nicaragua, Bono saw the distress of peasants bullied in internal conflicts subject to American political intervention. This first-hand experience later became a central influence on the new music. The band wanted music with a sense of location, a 'cinematic' quality; the album's music and lyrics draw on imagery created by American writers whose works the band had been reading.[58]
The wild beauty, cultural richness, spiritual vacancy and ferocious violence of America are explored to compelling effect in virtually every aspect of The Joshua Tree—in the title and the cover art, the blues and country borrowings evident in the music ... Indeed, Bono says that "dismantling the mythology of America" is an important part of "The Joshua Tree's" artistic objective.
Rolling Stone[59]
The Joshua Tree[60] was released in March 1987. The album juxtaposes antipathy towards America against the band's deep fascination with the country, its open spaces, freedom, and what it stands for.[61] It became the fastest-selling album in British chart history, and was number one for nine weeks in the United States.[62] It won U2 their first two Grammy Awards.[63] The album's first two singles, "the rock & roll bolero" "With or Without You"[41] and the rhythmic gospel "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For", quickly went to number one in the U.S. U2 became the fourth rock band to be featured on the cover of Time magazine,[64] which declared U2 "Rock's Hottest Ticket".[65] The album brought U2 a new level of success and is cited by Rolling Stone as one of rock's greatest.[66] The Joshua Tree Tour was the first during which the band played numerous stadium shows alongside smaller arena shows.[67]
The documentary Rattle and Hum featured footage recorded from The Joshua Tree Tour, and the accompanying double album of the same name included nine studio tracks and six live U2 performances. Released in record stores and cinemas in October 1988, the album and film were intended as a tribute to American music.[68] The film included tracks recorded at Sun Studios in Memphis and tracks performed with Bob Dylan and B. B. King. Despite a positive reception from fans, Rattle and Hum received mixed reviews from both film and music critics;[69] one Rolling Stone editor spoke of the album's "excitement", another described it as "bombastic and misguided".[70] The film's director, Phil Joanou, described it as "an overly pretentious look at U2".[71] Most of the album's new material was played on 1989's Lovetown Tour, which primarily consisted of shows in Australia and Europe. With a sense of musical stagnation, Bono announced at an end-of-decade concert that U2 had come to the end of an era and had to "...go away and just dream it all up again".[72]

[edit] Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
Buzzwords on this record were trashy, throwaway, dark, sexy, and industrial (all good) and earnest, polite, sweet, righteous, rockist and linear (all bad). It was good if a song took you on a journey or made you think your hifi was broken, bad if it reminded you of recording studios or U2 ... Berlin became a conceptual backdrop for the record. The Berlin of the Thirties—decadent, sexual and dark—resonating against the Berlin of the Nineties—reborn, chaotic and optimistic...
Brian Eno on the recording of Achtung Baby[73]
Stung by criticism of Rattle and Hum, the band made a calculated change in musical and thematic direction for their seventh studio album, Achtung Baby; the change was their most dramatic since The Unforgettable Fire.[74] The band began work on Achtung Baby in East Berlin in October 1990 with producers Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno, seeking inspiration and renewal on the eve of German reunification.[75] The sessions instead proved to be difficult. In Berlin, conflict arose within the band over the quality of material and musical direction. While Adam and Larry preferred a sound similar to U2's previous work, Bono and The Edge were inspired by alternative rock and European dance music and advocated a change. Weeks of slow progress, arguments, and tension subsided when the band rallied around a chord progression The Edge had written, creating the song "One".[76] The band completed the album in Dublin.
In November 1991, U2 released Achtung Baby. Sonically, the album incorporated dance, industrial, and alternative rock influences of the time and the band referred to the album as the sound of "four men chopping down the Joshua Tree".[77] Thematically, it was a more inward-looking and personal record; it was darker, yet at times more flippant, than the band's previous work. Commercially and critically, it has been one of the band's most successful albums and was a crucial part of the band's early 1990s reinvention.[78] Like The Joshua Tree, it is cited by Rolling Stone as one of rock's greatest.[66]

The Zoo TV stage featured a complex setup with over 30 video screens.[79]

"The Fly" (1991)
Sample of "The Fly" – chosen as the first single from Achtung Baby (1991) because its hip-hop beats, distorted vocals, and hard industrial edge sounded nothing like the traditional U2 sound.[80]
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The Zoo TV Tour of 1992–1993 was a multimedia event, and showcased an extravagant but intentionally bewildering array of hundreds of video screens, upside-down flying Trabant cars, mock transmission towers, satellite TV links, subliminal messages, and Bono's over-the-top stage characters such as "The Fly", "Mirror-Ball Man", and "(Mister) MacPhisto". The extravagant shows were intentionally in contrast to the austere staging of previous U2 tours, and mocked the excesses of rock and roll by appearing to embrace these very excesses. The shows were, in part, U2's way to represent the pervasive nature of cable television and its blurring of news, entertainment, and home shopping.[81] Prank phone calls were made to President Bush, the United Nations, and others. Live satellite uplinks to war-torn Sarajevo caused controversy.[82]
Quickly recorded and released during a break in the Zoo TV tour in mid-1993, the Zooropa album continued many of the themes from Achtung Baby and the Zoo TV tour. Initially intended as an EP, the band expanded Zooropa into a full-length LP album. It was an even greater departure from the style of their earlier recordings, incorporating techno influences and other electronic effects.[83] Johnny Cash sang the vocal on the "The Wanderer". Most of the songs were played at least once during the 1993 leg of the tour, which extended through Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan; half the album's tracks became fixtures in the set.[84]

[edit] Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1994–1999)
In 1995, U2 released an experimental album called Original Soundtracks 1. Brian Eno, producer of three previous U2 albums, contributed as a full partner, including writing and performing. For this reason, and due to the record's highly experimental nature, the band chose to release it under the moniker "Passengers" to distinguish it from U2's conventional albums. It was commercially unnoticed by U2 standards and it received generally poor reviews. However, the single "Miss Sarajevo" featuring Luciano Pavarotti, and which Bono cites as one of his favourite U2 songs,[85] was a hit.
It's not enough to write a great lyric; it’s not enough to have a good idea or a great hook, lots of things have to come together and then you have to have the ability to discipline and screen. We should give this album to a re-mixer, go back to what was originally intended, so that 'Mofo' is on top of the stickiest groove with a proper plastic attack, 'Do You Feel Loved' is done as a liquid bass line hook that carries the intimacies whispered on top of it, 'If God Will Send His Angels' should be diamonds and pearls.
Bono on Pop[86]
On 1997's Pop, U2 continued experimenting; tape loops, programming, rhythm sequencing, and sampling provided much of the album with heavy, funky dance rhythms.[87] Released in March, the album debuted at number one in 35 countries, and drew mainly positive reviews.[88] Rolling Stone, for example, stated that U2 had "defied the odds and made some of the greatest music of their lives".[89] Others felt that the album was a major disappointment and sales were poor compared to previous U2 releases.[90] The band was hurried into completing the album in time for the impending pre-booked tour, and Bono admitted that the album "didn't communicate the way it was intended to".[91]

The giant screen from the PopMart Tour stage
The subsequent tour, PopMart, commenced in April 1997. Like Zoo TV, it poked fun at pop culture and was intended to send a sarcastic message to those accusing U2 of commercialism. The stage included a 100-foot (30 m) tall golden yellow arch (reminiscent of the McDonald's logo), a 150-foot (46 m) long video screen, and a 40-foot (12 m) tall mirrorball lemon. U2's "big shtick" failed, however, to satisfy many who were seemingly confused by the band's new kitsch image and elaborate sets.[92] The late delivery of Pop meant rehearsal time was severely reduced, and performances in early shows suffered.[93] A highlight of the tour was a concert in Sarajevo where U2 were the first major group to perform following the Bosnian War.[94] Larry Mullen, Jr. described the concert as "an experience I will never forget for the rest of my life, and if I had to spend 20 years in the band just to play that show, and have done that, I think it would have been worthwhile."[95] One month following the conclusion of the PopMart Tour, U2 appeared on the 200th episode of The Simpsons, "Trash of the Titans", in which Homer Simpson disrupted the band on stage during a PopMart concert.[96]

[edit] "Reapplying for the job of the best band in the world" (2000–2006)
All That You Can't Leave Behind is easy to relate to, full of solid songs that appeal to a wide audience with its clear notions of family, friendship, love, death, and re-birth. More Lanois than Eno on first impression, the sounds on this album come from a band that has digested the music it started to consume while making Rattle and Hum. This time they are neither imitating or paying tribute. This time it's soul music, not music about soul.
— Caroline van Oosten de Boer[42]
Following the comparatively poor reception of Pop, U2 declared they were "reapplying for the job ... [of] the best band in the world",[97] and have since pursued a more conventional rock sound mixed with the influences of their 1990s musical explorations.[98] All That You Can't Leave Behind was released in October 2000 and reunited the band with producers Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois. The album was considered by many of those not won over by the band's 1990s experimentation as a return to grace;[99] Rolling Stone called it U2's "third masterpiece" alongside The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby.[100] The album debuted at number one in 22 countries[101] and its worldwide hit single, "Beautiful Day" earned three Grammy Awards. The album's other singles, "Walk On", "Elevation", and "Stuck in a Moment You Can't Get Out Of" also won Grammy Awards.

U2 perform at Super Bowl XXXVI Halftime Show, 3 February 2002
For the Elevation Tour, U2 performed in a scaled-down setting, returning to arenas after nearly a decade of stadium productions. A heart-shaped stage and ramp permitted greater proximity to the audience. Following the September 11 attacks, the new album gained added resonance.[102] In October, U2 performed a series of sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. In later interviews, Bono and the Edge called these New York City shows among their most memorable and emotional performances.[103] In early 2002, U2 performed during halftime of Super Bowl XXXVI,[104] which SI.com ranked as the best halftime show in Super Bowl history.[105]

"Vertigo" (2004)
Sample of "Vertigo" – propelled by an aggressive riff, the song became a hit worldwide and was used extensively in a cross-promotion with Apple.
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The band's next studio album, How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, was released on 22 November 2004. Sonically, the band was looking for harder-hitting rock than All That You Can't Leave Behind. Thematically, Bono states that "A lot of the songs are paeans to naiveté, a rejection of knowingness."[106] The first single, "Vertigo", was featured on a widely-aired television commercial for the Apple iPod, in conjunction with the release of a special edition U2 iPod and an iTunes U2 box set. The album debuted at number one in the U.S. where first week sales doubled that of All That You Can't Leave Behind and set a record for the band.[107] Claiming it as a contender as one of U2's three best albums, Bono said, "There are no weak songs. But as an album, the whole isn't greater than the sum of its parts, and it freaking annoys me."[106] Using a similar setup and stage design as the previous tour, the Vertigo Tour featured a set list that varied more across dates than any U2 tour since the Lovetown Tour, and included songs not played since the early 1980s. Like the Elevation Tour, the Vertigo Tour was a commercial success.[108] The album and its singles won Grammy Awards in all eight categories in which U2 were nominated. In 2005, Bruce Springsteen inducted U2 into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[109] A 3-D concert film, U2 3D, filmed at nine concerts during the Latin America leg of the Vertigo Tour (Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Brazil), was released on 23 January 2008.
In August 2006, the band incorporated its publishing business in The Netherlands two months after Ireland capped its artists' tax exemption at €250,000.[110]

[edit] No Line on the Horizon and U2 360° Tour (2007–present)
The band began work on their twelfth album No Line on the Horizon in 2006, originally writing and recording with producer Rick Rubin, but the material was shelved. The band subsequently chose to begin writing and recording for the album with producers Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno in June 2007. A two-week trip to Fez, Morocco where the six recorded led to the band experimenting with North African sounds and indicating the album would be more experimental than their previous efforts. During the album sessions, on 31 March 2008, it was confirmed that U2 signed a 12 year deal with Live Nation worth an estimated $100 million (£50 million),[111] which includes Live Nation controlling the band's merchandise, sponsoring, and their official website.
After 16 months in the studio, the band completed No Line on the Horizon in December 2008, and it was released on 27 February 2009.[112] The album received generally positive reviews, but critics noted the end result was not as experimental as expected. The band have confirmed plans to release another album by the end of the year, provisionally titled Songs of Ascent, consisting of material recorded during the sessions for No Line on the Horizon. Bono says it will be "a more meditative album on the theme of pilgrimage".[113][114]
U2 have begun a worldwide stadium tour entitled the U2 360° Tour to support No Line on the Horizon. The tour began on 30 June 2009 at Camp Nou in Barcelona, Spain and will feature European and North American legs in 2009, each approximately 6 weeks long, with additional shows to follow in 2010.[115] The tour features a 360-degree staging/audience configuration, in which the fans will surround the stage from all sides.[116]

[edit] Musical style
Since their inception, U2 have developed and maintained a distinctly recognisable sound, with emphasis on melodic instrumentals and expressive, larger-than-life vocals.[117] This approach is rooted partly in the early influence of record producer Steve Lillywhite at a time when the band was not known for musical proficiency.[118] The Edge has consistently used a rhythmic echo and a signature delay[119] to craft his guitar work, coupled with an Irish-influenced drone played against his syncopated melodies[120] that ultimately yields a well-defined ambient, chiming sound. Bono has nurtured his falsetto operatic voice[121] and has exhibited a notable lyrical bent towards social, political, and personal subject matter while maintaining a grandiose scale in his songwriting. In addition, The Edge has described U2 as a fundamentally live band.[120]

U2 in their hometown of Dublin during the Vertigo Tour
Despite these broad consistencies, U2 have introduced new elements into their musical repertoire with each new album. U2's early sound was influenced by bands such as Television and Joy Division, and has been described as containing a "sense of exhilaration" that resulted from The Edge's "radiant chords" and Bono's "ardent vocals".[122] U2's sound began with post-punk roots and minimalistic and uncomplicated instrumentals heard on Boy and October, but evolved through War to include aspects of rock anthem, funk, and dance rhythms to become more versatile and aggressive.[123] The two albums were labelled "muscular and assertive" by Rolling Stone,[41] influenced in large part by Lillywhite's producing. The Unforgettable Fire, which began with the Edge playing more keyboards than guitars, as well as follow-up The Joshua Tree, had Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois at the production helm. With their influence, both albums achieved a "diverse texture".[41] The songs from The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum placed more emphasis on Lanois-inspired rhythm as they mixed distinct and varied styles of gospel and blues music, which stemmed from the band's burgeoning fascination with America's culture, people and places. In the 1990s, U2 reinvented themselves as they began using synthesizers, distortion, and electronic beats derived from alternative music, dance music, and hip-hop on Achtung Baby,[124] Zooropa and Pop.[125] The 2000s had U2 returning to a stripped-down sound, with less use of synthesizers and effects and a more traditional rhythm.

[edit] Lyrics and themes
Social and political commentary, often embellished with Christian religious and spiritual imagery,[126] are a major aspect of U2's lyrical content. Songs such as "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Mothers of the Disappeared" were motivated by current events of the time. The former was written about the troubles in Northern Ireland,[127] while the latter concerns the struggle of mothers whose children were kidnapped and killed under Argentina's military dictatorship that began in 1976.
Bono's personal conflicts and turmoil related to family colour songs like "Mofo", "Tomorrow" and "Kite". An emotional yearning or pleading is another frequent conveyance,[117] in tracks such as "Yahweh",[128] "Peace on Earth", and "Please". The investigation of loss and anguish coupled with hopefulness and resiliency, which is central to The Joshua Tree,[41] has motivated much of U2's songwriting and music. Some of this lyrical ideation has been amplified by Bono and the band's personal experiences during their youth in Ireland, as well as Bono's campaigning and activism later in his life. U2 have used tours such as Zoo TV and PopMart to caricature social trends, such as media overload and consumerism, respectively.[125]
While the band and its fans often affirm the political nature of their music, U2's lyrics and music have been criticized as apolitical because of their vagueness and "fuzzy imagery", and a lack of any specific references to actual people or characters.[129]

[edit] Influences
The band cites The Who,[130] The Clash,[131] Ramones,[132] The Beatles,[133] Joy Division,[134] Siouxsie & the Banshees[135] and Patti Smith[136] as influences. Van Morrison has been cited by Bono as an influence[137] and his influence on U2 is pointed out by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[138] Other musicians and bands such as Snow Patrol,[139] The Fray,[140] OneRepublic,[141], Coldplay,[142] This Allure,[143] The Academy Is...,[144] The Killers, Your Vegas[145] and Angels & Airwaves[146] have in turn been influenced by the work of U2. U2 have also worked and/or had influential relationships with artists including Johnny Cash, Green Day, Leonard Cohen, Bruce Springsteen, B.B. King, Luciano Pavarotti,[147] Bob Dylan, Elvis Costello, Wim Wenders, R.E.M., Salman Rushdie, and Anton Corbijn.

[edit] Campaigning and activism

Bono with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil
Since the early 1980s, the members of U2—as a band and individually—have collaborated with other musicians, artists, celebrities, and politicians to address issues concerning poverty, disease, and social injustice.
In 1984, Bono and Adam Clayton participated in Band Aid to raise money for Ethiopian famine relief. The initiative produced the hit charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", which would be the first among several collaborations between U2 and Bob Geldof. In July 1985, U2 played Live Aid, a follow-up to Band Aid's efforts. Bono and his wife Ali, invited by World Vision, later visited Ethiopia where they witnessed the famine first hand. Bono would later say this laid the groundwork for his Africa campaigning and some of his songwriting.[148]
In 1986, U2 participated in the A Conspiracy of Hope tour in support of Amnesty International and in Self Aid for unemployment in Ireland. The same year, Bono and Ali Hewson also visited Nicaragua and El Salvador at the invitation of the Sanctuary movement, and saw the effects of the El Salvador Civil War. These 1986 events greatly influenced The Joshua Tree album, which was being recorded at the time.
In 1992, the band participated in the "Stop Sellafield" concert with Greenpeace during their Zoo TV tour.[149] Events in Sarajevo during the Bosnian war inspired the song "Miss Sarajevo", which premiered at a September 1995 Pavarotti and Friends show, and which Bono and the Edge performed at War Child.[150] A promise made in 1993 was kept when the band played in Sarajevo as part of 1997's PopMart Tour.[151] In 1998, they performed in Belfast days prior to the vote on the Good Friday Agreement, bringing Northern Irish political leaders David Trimble and John Hume on stage to promote the agreement.[152] Later that year, all proceeds from the release of the "Sweetest Thing" single went towards supporting the Chernobyl Children's Project.
In 2001, the band dedicated "Walk On" to Burma's pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi.[153] In late 2003, Bono and the Edge participated in the South Africa HIV/AIDS awareness 46664 series of concerts hosted by Nelson Mandela. The band played 2005's Live 8 concert in London. The band and manager Paul McGuinness were awarded Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for their work in promoting human rights.[154]
Since 2000, Bono's campaigning has included Jubilee 2000 with Bob Geldof, Muhammad Ali, and others to promote the cancellation of third world debt during the Great Jubilee. In January 2002, Bono co-founded the multinational NGO, DATA, with the aim of improving the social, political, and financial state of Africa. He continued his campaigns for debt and HIV/AIDS relief into June 2002 by making high-profile visits to Africa.[155]
Product Red, a 2006 for-profit brand seeking to raise money for the Global Fund, was founded, in part, by Bono. The ONE Campaign, the US counterpart of Make Poverty History, has been shaped by his efforts and vision. Bono has also teamed up with Yahoo! to promote the ONE Campaign, which Yahoo! has helped to re-develop.
In late 2005, following Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, The Edge helped introduce Music Rising, an initiative to raise funds for musicians who lost their instruments in the storm-ravaged Gulf Coast.[156] In 2006, U2 collaborated with punk rock band Green Day to record a cover version of the song "The Saints Are Coming" by The Skids to benefit Music Rising.[157]
U2 and Bono's social activism have not been without its critics however. Several authors and activists who publish in politically left journals such as CounterPunch have decried Bono's support of political figures such as Paul Wolfowitz,[158] as well as his "essential paternalism".[159] Other news sources have more generally questioned the efficacy of Bono's campaign to relieve debt and provide assistance to Africa.[160] Tax and development campaigners have also criticized the band's move from Ireland to Netherlands to reduce its tax bill.[161]

[edit] Other projects
The members of U2 have undertaken a number of side projects, sometimes in collaboration with some of their bandmates. In 1985, Bono recorded the song "In a Lifetime" with the Irish band Clannad. The Edge recorded a solo soundtrack album for the film Captive in 1986,[162] which included a vocal performance by Sinéad O'Connor that predates her own debut album by a year. Bono and The Edge wrote the song "She's a Mystery to Me" for Roy Orbison, which was featured on his 1989 album Mystery Girl.[163] In 1990, Larry Mullen co-wrote and produced a song for the Irish International soccer team in Italia '90, called "Put 'Em Under Pressure", which topped the Irish charts. Together with The Edge, Bono wrote the song "GoldenEye" for the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye, which was performed by Tina Turner. Adam Clayton and Larry Mullen, Jr. did a rework of the title track of the movie Mission: Impossible in 1996. Bono loaned his voice to "Joy" on Mick Jagger's 2001 album Goddess in the Doorway. Bono also recorded a spare, nearly spoken-word version of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah" for the "Tower of Song" compilation in 1995. Additionally, in 1998, Bono collaborated with Kirk Franklin and Crystal Lewis (along with other controversially mainstream artists R. Kelly and Mary J. Blige) for a successful gospel song called "Lean on Me", an interpretation of the Bill Withers song.
Aside from musical collaborations, U2 have worked with several authors. American author William S. Burroughs had a guest appearance in U2's video for "Last Night on Earth" shortly before he died. His poem "A Thanksgiving Prayer" was used as video footage during the band's Zoo TV Tour. Other collaborators include William Gibson and Allen Ginsberg. In early 2000, the band recorded three songs for the The Million Dollar Hotel movie soundtrack, including "The Ground Beneath Her Feet", which was co-written by Salman Rushdie and motivated by his book of the same name.
Most recently, Bono appeared and performed The Beatles songs in the movie Across the Universe (2007). Bono and The Edge are also writing the music to Spider-Man: The Musical, expected to open in late 2009. The Edge also created the theme song for Season 1 and 2 of The Batman.

Discography
Main articles: U2 discography and List of U2 songs
Boy (1980)
October (1981)
War (1983)
The Unforgettable Fire (1984)
The Joshua Tree (1987)
Rattle and Hum (1988)
Achtung Baby (1991)
Zooropa (1993)
Pop (1997)
All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000)
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004)
No Line on the Horizon (2009)

Awards
Main article: List of awards received by U2
U2 first received Grammy Awards for the The Joshua Tree in 1988, and have won 22 in total since, tying U2 with Stevie Wonder as contemporary artists with the most Grammys. These include Best Rock Duo or Group, Album of the Year, Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Rock Album. The British Phonographic Industry has awarded U2 seven BRIT Awards, five of these being for Best International Group. In Ireland, U2 have won 14 Meteor Awards since the awards began in 2001. Other awards include one AMA, four VMAs, ten Q Awards, two Juno Awards, three NME Awards, and a Golden Globe Award. The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in early 2005. In 2006, all four members of the band received ASCAP awards for writing the songs, "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For", and "Vertigo".